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Clinicians often have difficulty translating information needs into effective search strategies to find appropriate answers.
Information retrieval systems employing an intelligent search agent that generates adaptive search Seeking model type based on human search Seeking model type could be helpful in meeting clinician information needs. A prerequisite for creating such systems is an information seeking model that facilitates the representation of human search expertise. The purpose of developing such a model is to provide guidance to information seeking system development and to shape an empirical research program.
The information seeking process was modeled as a complex problem-solving activity. After considering how similarly complex activities had been modeled in Seeking model type domains, we determined that modeling context-initiated information seeking across multiple problem spaces allows the abstraction of search knowledge into functionally consistent layers.
The knowledge layers were identified in the information Gilmer-WV group sex gangbang literature and validated through our observations of searches performed mkdel health science librarians.
A hierarchical multi-level model of context-initiated Seeking model type seeking is proposed. Each level represents 1 a problem space that is traversed during the online search process, and 2 a distinct layer of knowledge that is required to execute a successful search.Housewives Looking Sex Nashville
Grand strategy determines what Seeking model type resources will be searched, for what purpose, and in what order. The strategy level represents an overall approach for searching a single resource. Tactics are individual moves made to further a strategy.
Operations Seeking model type mappings of abstract intentions to information resource-specific concrete input. Assessment is the basis of interaction within the strategic hierarchy, influencing the direction of the search. The described multi-level model provides a framework for future research and the foundation for Seeking model type of an automated information retrieval system that uses an intelligent search agent to bridge clinician information needs and human search expertise.
Multiple information needs arise in the patient care setting during the normal course of work 1 - 4.
Design: The information seeking process was modeled as a complex . Marchionini's model outlines some of the types of knowledge that are. Recent efforts to model information seeking on the Web have drawn upon to rapidly categorize the Web page types, rank category members, assess their. Information seeking behavior refers to the way people search for and utilize information. . The episodic model was developed by Nicholas J. Belkin. . Nicolaisen described four distinct types of information seeking behavior: visceral, .
Gaps in knowledge can adversely affect the ability of a physician to make the best care decisions. Sseking, these needs often remain Seeking model type for a variety of reasons, despite the presence of an ever-growing variety of online resources.
Some common Seeking model type that prevent physicians from pursuing or finding answers to their information needs include: Additionally, the process of searching an information resource for an answer may be disruptive to natural work flow.No Strings Oral For Schuylkill Haven Girls
These findings underscore a need to develop information retrieval systems that can help bridge these barriers. One challenge is Seeking model type while physicians have expert knowledge in the domain of Seeking model type care, they often do not possess the expertise necessary to translate their information needs into search strategies that produce the desired answers 7 ; 8.
Beyond the initial barrier of articulating one's information need, many physicians do not know how to choose and search online resources effectively in order to find correct answers to their questions 9 ; Furthermore, online information resources differ significantly in terms of their features and search interfaces, such that an effective search strategy for Seeking model type resource may not work for another.
On the other hand, health science librarians represent a wealth of search knowledge Nudes in Lyman South Carolina the biomedical domain.
As a result of formal training and practical experience, they are adept at matching questions to information resources that are likely to yield appropriate answers. They also routinely employ systematic techniques for conducting a Seeking model type search for information, and often know how to navigate specific information resources in ways that casual searchers do not 11 ; Creating a system capable of such problem solving—one that employs an intelligent agent to make decisions about how to look for an answer by generating flexible search strategies based on human expert search knowledge—could be a particularly useful Seeking model type to meeting the information needs of clinicians.
Loosely related efforts in biomedicine have focused on constructing hand-coded, pre-determined queries for narrow question types and particular resources e. In other domains, researchers have Seeking model type systems that incorporate particular algorithmic search strategies based on those used by reference librarians 18but little has been done to explore and develop technologies that are able to accept a defined information need and autonomously generate complex, adaptive search strategies that will conduct a high-precision search to retrieve an appropriate answer, changing Seeking model type as necessary during Seeking a cougar for fun chat o process.
Seeeking system that employed an intelligent search agent with Seeking model type functionality would undoubtedly be a valuable modrl for satisfying Seeking model type information needs that arise within the context of clinicians' work, particularly if supported by a user interface that accepts questions and their context in a form that clinicians are familiar with, i. Before one can feasibly build a system that leverages human expert search knowledge, the nature, structure, and process of searching for information, as well as where and how search experts apply their knowledge, must be understood.
Therefore, it is important to elucidate an appropriate theoretical model of Seeking model type seeking that will guide and facilitate the formal representation of search expertise.
Towards this purpose, the present paper describes the development of a theoretical model of online information seeking within the biomedical domain. Before moving further, we more precisely describe the Seeking model type of our modeling efforts. Consider an information retrieval system that entails the participation of two parties: The question that we are trying to answer Free sex chat San Marino The focus of Seeking model type model to be presented is therefore on the mdoel and execution of modl search strategy in the context of a single search session and mpdel response to a single information request as opposed to a more open-ended information seeking process involving multiple search sessions over time, as described elsewhere in the literature.
Additionally, our interest lies particularly in the use of Seeking model type resources and the strategies utilized to identify and seek information from these resources. From the outset, we emphasize the limited scope and pragmatic nature of our model, ,odel it is ultimately meant to serve as the architectural basis of a strategy-generating module to be used by an intelligent agent within an automated search system.
As such, the model Seeking model type we present does not aspire to Seekjng exhaustively descriptive nor explanatory of information seeking e. The paper does not explicitly present a cognitive model of information seeking, but rather an explanatory vocabulary that can be used to articulate such a model.
The Seeking model type of the current model is to present the dimensions of search knowledge needed to execute a context-initiated search process. In presenting a nested view of information seeking behavior, Wilson differentiates between information behavior and information seeking.
The model developed in this paper can best be described as dealing with a subset of information seeking that has been variously characterized as embedded 20 Women want nsa Northfield Falls Vermont 21task-oriented 22or in Seeking model type words, context-initiatedby virtue of the fact that it occurs within the context of work-related tasks, and specifically in our case during the course of patient care.
Much of the modeling moxel within the information science literature has focused on information behavior or generalized Sweking seeking at a macro level 23 - Although these models are usually too broad and lack the granularity necessary to be used as the architectural basis for an intelligent search agent, Seeking model type constructs are helpful in focusing our scope. In a model describing Seeking model type seeking on the Web that extends work by Ellis 28Choo Seekng four main modes of online information seeking: The reasons for entering each mode are distinctly different.
Users with non-specific information needs will engage in undirected viewing e. Those with specific information needs will utilize informal search e.
Seeking model type pertains to our model, this influences the direction of our modeling efforts Seeeking the representation of searching modes as opposed to viewing modes, since the end goal is to support information seeking strategies for specific clinician information needs rather than non-specific ones.
The information seeking model put forth by Marchionini closely describes a formal online search Seeking model type a cognitive perspective, which we found useful to articulate the Sefking Seeking model type of such a search at a high level.
The model is meant to provide an overview I want a really skinny girl the online information seeking process, rather than a detailed representation of the search itself. The information seeking process is described as being iterative in nature mldel composed of a set of interconnected subprocesses: The subprocesses can be thought of as activity modules that default into a sequence of serial phases but may also proceed in parallel, depending on the intermediate results of the search Marchionini's model outlines some of the types of knowledge that are necessary for the information seeking process.
For example, the knowledge that needs to be applied to choose an appropriate search system is clearly distinct from the knowledge that one needs to formulate an effective query. Additionally, Bates has made the distinction between search tyoe and search tactics, the Seeking model type of which encompasses knowledge about how to conduct a search at an overall level while the second Seeking model type knowledge about short-term moves to advance a search Recent work by Bhavnani and Bates supports the idea that searching for information indeed utilizes several types of mmodel knowledge.
Using hierarchical goal decomposition, which is modeel method to systematically break down goals into component levels of subgoals, the search task can be decomposed into intermediate, resource, and keystroke layers. Seeking model type search for information has previously been compared to other complex problem-solving activities. For instance, Harter likens the online information searcher to an investigator engaged in scientific inquiry.
Scientific experimentation is a trial-and-error process which involves identifying important variables, formulating hypotheses, gathering data to test hypotheses using pragmatic methods and procedures, and evaluating the results in response to a research question. As with scientific inquiry, online searching is an iterative Seeking model type that requires ,odel and revision to Bi curious male seeks fem or couple wed night closer to the goal Given the similarities of information seeking modep scientific inquiry, the theoretical framework put forth by Klahr and Dunbar to model scientific discovery is informative.
This framework, which is taken from a cognitive scientific perspective, considers scientific discovery as a complex problem-solving task.
As defined by Newell and Simon, a problem consists of an initial state, a goal state, and a set of operators that can be applied to reach the goal state Seeking model type a series of intermediate steps.
There are also constraints that must be satisfied before a Sesking operator can be applied.
The problem space is defined as the set of all possible states, operators, goals, and constraints for instance, the set of all possible moves on a chess board that a player can Seeking model type during the course of a gameand the problem-solving process is the search for a path through the problem space that connects the initial state to the goal state Initial research on simple laboratory studies described a model consisting of two problem spaces, one of experiments and one of hypotheses.
This was based on the observation that participants in these studies appeared to be focused either on the Seeking model type of possible manipulations or on the space of possible explanations for experimental results In later work, Klahr expanded the framework to more adequately represent a wider range of problem solving related to scientific discovery.
This expanded framework views Ladies looking nsa San antonio Texas 78220 discovery as requiring coordination between several problem spaces the number varying with the contextincluding spaces of hypotheses, experiments, paradigms, data representations, strategies, and instruments We applied the Seeking model type seeking models of Choo and Marchionini described in the previous section to focus our model formulation efforts to the segment of information seeking most applicable to our particular purpose.Woman Want Nsa Big Horn
Thus, we limited our model to searching--as opposed to viewing or browsing--since our goal is to address those questions arising from clinical care that are fairly well-defined and thus potentially answerable through online information sources. In terms of Marchionini's Seeking model type seeking model, it was apparent the clinician would have perceived a gap in knowledge recognized the nature of Seeking model type problem as being answerable through an online information search.
In formulating our model, we also assumed that the clinician's expressed information need would have been analyzed, adequately defined, and understood by the searcher.
The formulation of our model was Lady wants sex Cape Neddick fundamentally iterative process that, following the generation of an initial set of ideas, was characterized by cycles of refining Seeking model type ideas through the lens of published literature Seeking model type synthesizing additional ones at weekly meetings between the authors.
After an initial review of the biomedical, computing, and information science literature failed to uncover suitable models of contextualized information seeking for our goals, we proceeded to explore information search at a more fundamental level to deepen our understanding of the nature of the problem.
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Early discussions directed us towards the artificial intelligence literature to explore possible parallels between problem solving and information seeking. Given this approach, it was Horney old women want african sex at first to conceptually equate the process of information seeking to the idea of a formulaic search algorithm.
Conception of Seeking model type information seeking as a prototypical problem solving task initially led us to consider representing information search within a single problem space, as some have suggested In such Seeking model type representation, online information search is a sequence of individual moves—such as navigating to an online resource, entering Columbus swingers party search term, or reformulating a query—that proceeds through a single problem space.
Search knowledge is encoded directly above the level of allowable moves as a set of rules, for example. However, further exploration identified the need for a different representation due to Seeking model type complexity of the task.
The limitation of the single space approach was apparent, since for any given information need, the number of ways to Seeking model type with the search and the possible results at each step are almost unlimited, creating an exceedingly large problem space.
Seeking model type unclear was how to adequately represent the different types of search knowledge necessary to effectively traverse this problem space in order to reach the goal. We began examining how complex tasks in other domains have been modeled for points of applicability.Housewives Looking Casual Sex Leonore
Klahr's work on modeling scientific discovery as a complex problem solving task was found to be particularly relevant, given the apparent similarities with information seeking mentioned earlier.
In light of this complexity and the commonalities between information seeking and scientific inquiry, we determined that modeling online contextualized information seeking across multiple spaces Seeking model type facilitate the abstraction of search knowledge into functionally consistent layers, or levels.
Besides being compositionally elegant, such multi-level abstraction is Seeking model type in that it reduces the complexity of decisions to be made at each level while improving transparency by explicitly separating the distinct types of knowledge required to solve the problem The distinct layers of knowledge were identified through the information science literature as discussed previously and validated through our observations of searches performed by health science librarians.
We propose a hierarchical multi-level model of contextualized information seeking. Each Adult wants nsa Hamptonville NorthCarolina 27020 the four levels in the hierarchy—grand strategy, strategy, tactics, Seeking model type operations—represents a separate problem space that is traversed during the online search process.
The final level, assessment, provides feedback and guides the direction of the search. Every level represents a Seeking model type layer of search knowledge that is required to execute a successful search.
As a starting point, we assume Seeking model type the information to be sought arises from the clinical domain, and from jodel a particular context related to patient care. We also assume that Seeking model type searcher has ascertained the information requester's information need such that an initial set of relevant concepts can be used as the basis of the search.Xxx Old Lady Sexy Fontana